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  • 藝術

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    劉海永:用故紙拼出古城開封的背影

    更新時間:2019-03-04     發布者:李博     查看:448     來源:大河報

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     劉海永在講解開封的歷史

      近日,開封市組織對中山路街景整治舉行了專家論證會。中山路的前身是北宋汴京城的御道,是開封城千年不變的中軸線,這條道路的街景建設對開封意義重大。參會專家有考古專業的大學教授、城市總規劃師、文學博士、奧運會徽設計者。唯有42歲的劉海永,非但沒有耀眼的職稱和頭銜,甚至沒有相關的職業身份。

      劉海永是一位民間城市歷史文化的研究者。20多年來,他堅持不懈地搜集開封近當代史資料。從2015年開始,劉海永陸續出版了《一座城的民國記憶》《一座城的人文秘境》《一座城的美食風情》《餐桌上的宋朝》等多部講述開封歷史文化的著作。

      日前,記者采訪了劉海永,聽他講講如何癡迷于故紙堆中,一枝一葉地搜集整理城市歷史文化的故事。

      到廢品站的廢書堆里翻找開封的文獻

      1995年我從杞縣考上開封師專藝術系美術專業,那時我18歲,第一次來到開封。剛開始還有些失望——這座城太破了。后來發現看著很破敗的一個個街巷,但歷史卻可以追溯到上千年,里面有很多名人趣事,甚至是近現代歷史事件的現場。這讓我充滿了好奇。

      我上學時經常到市圖書館地方文獻室去抄文獻,手抄《守汴日志》(中州古籍出版社出版,明李光壂撰),用硬皮本一字不落記錄下來。后來去書攤,上世紀90年代中期龍亭東湖開了個星期天市場,還有河南大學西門,都有十幾家舊書攤,我在那兒開始找一些關于開封的書籍。

      我大規模地去搜集這些史料,從尋找一本書開始。我打聽到有一本書叫《開封近代建筑史略》,1992年的油印本,但這本書問了很多人都沒有。短短20年的東西,就已經找不到了。而看開封的老建筑,必須得看這本書。

      通過這本書的尋找,我發現開封的地方文獻不僅僅是官方修的那些志書,各個行業、各個領域,都有文獻記載。把這些東西匯集起來,才是一個完整的開封。

      最艱苦的時候,我跑到廢品站堆積如山的廢書里,一本一本去翻找開封的文獻,滿臉都是灰塵,從十幾噸的書中找到幾本開封的東西。有時候我得到消息說“今天晚上拉來一車東西,可能有一些開封資料”,我就在那等,飯都不吃,買個燒餅,這樣你才能得到東西。我覺得這都是使命感,誰也沒教我,誰也沒引路,只是愿意這樣做。

      有些東西錯過了再去找就沒有了

      2004年前后,我開始從網上買各類關于開封的史料。對于實物,我注重收集容易保管的紙質品。比如紙片,過去電影院的座次表、票、照片,各種票證,公園老的門票,上世紀五六十年代的糧票糖票,只要是上面印著“開封”都收集。廠志收集有上千本,很多廠子都沒聽說過。還有行業志,包括稅務、工商、教育,甚至有辦事處志,大的就是一些區志、市志,都是成套成系列的。

      有些東西錯過了再去找就沒有了。大概是五六年前,一個老先生拿了一本1948年編的《開封市工商資料調查匯編》,記載了開封各個行業的歷史淵源和現狀。當時要一百五,我嫌貴,第二天我一咬牙準備去買,再也找不到了。

      具體數量沒有詳細統計過。地方文獻大概有8000到1萬份,有的很薄,一兩張就是一份。我書房里面有10個柜子,還有自行車庫里面也幾乎堆滿了。

      其實我不是為了收藏而收集史料,而是被開封這座城的文化所“俘虜”,收集的根源是對這座城市的熱愛。這20多年,我的收入,包括我妻子的收入,全都投入了進去。

      2012年,電影《一九四二》上映,我在開封博物館搞了一個“中原悲歌——1942河南大饑荒歷史圖片展”,展出了將近300份圖片,圖片是一個外國記者當年拍的。我一個朋友的父親當年曾到一線去采訪,他給我提供了很多關于開封的東西。這些東西一整合,就是一個龐大的體系。

      一磚一瓦都是故事一草一木都是歷史

      在收集整理史料的過程中,我發現很多在開封發生過的鮮為人知但很值得留下一筆的人和事。

      比如,葉鼎洛,江蘇人,是現代文學史上一個被人遺忘了的傳奇人物,他和郁達夫、田漢都是好友。上世紀30年代他在開封高中教過學,后來到河南省立第一師范教國文,就是現在的開封醫專舊址。

      葉鼎洛上世紀20年代發表長篇小說《男友》,和郁達夫一樣,他思維很超前。郁達夫的作品他給做插圖,他又會畫畫又會寫小說,還會填詞。

      還有一個人叫魯耀,領著一幫乞丐,在相國寺是個混世魔王。他看見什么東西都要嘗嘗,如果這個店家拒絕了,第二天會有一幫人來破壞你的生意。但是大家都白送給他吃,隔夜他會加倍償還給你。甚至有官員想去“跑官”,沒錢也去找他借錢,他就去找商戶去借,辦成之后,加倍還給商戶。這種人物身上有著濃烈的個性和地域色彩。

      這么多年通過反反復復的尋找和閱讀,我突然發現開封上下千年的文化脈絡都是相通的,它是一個龐大的文化體系。只有通過這些文獻的收集和閱讀,才可以走入開封的深處。走進去之后才發現,有一種很高大、很偉岸、很耀眼的東西,一點一滴都是文化,一磚一瓦都是故事,一草一木都是歷史。

      (口述人:劉海永  采訪整理:大河報·大河客戶端記者  周斌實習生冀冰冰沈美達圖片:受訪者供圖)

     




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